When Did the Kyoto Protocol End

The protocol offered countries several opportunities to achieve their objectives. One approach was to use natural processes called „sinks” that remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Planting trees that absorb carbon dioxide from the air would be an example. Another approach was the international programme called the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which encouraged developed countries to invest in technology and infrastructure in less developed countries, where there were often significant opportunities to reduce emissions. Under the CDM, the investing country could claim an effective reduction in emissions as a credit to meet its obligations under the Protocol. One example would be an investment in a clean-burning natural gas plant to replace a planned coal-fired power plant. A third approach was emissions trading, which allowed participating countries to buy and sell emission allowances, thus giving economic value to greenhouse gas emissions. European countries have created an emissions trading market as a mechanism to meet their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Countries that have not met their emission targets should offset the difference between their targeted and actual emissions, plus a penalty of 30% in the next commitment period from 2012 onwards; They would also be prevented from participating in emissions trading until they are found to be in compliance with the Protocol. Emission targets for post-2012 commitment periods should be set in future protocols. In 2016, when the Paris Climate Agreement came into force, the United States was one of the main drivers of the agreement, and President Obama hailed it as a „tribute to American leadership.” As a presidential candidate at the time, Donald Trump criticized the deal as a bad deal for the American people and promised to withdraw the United States if elected. In response to this criticism, Bush said, „I have responded to reality, and the reality is that the nation has a real problem when it comes to energy.” The Tyndall Centre called this „an exaggeration used to conceal the great benefactors of this policy reversal, that is, the U.S. oil and coal industry, which has a powerful lobby with the government and conservative Republican members of Congress.” [103] Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, an international treaty named after the Japanese city where it was adopted in December 1997, which aimed to reduce emissions of gases contributing to global warming.

The protocol, in force since 2005, planned to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases in 41 countries and the European Union by 5.2% compared to 1990 levels during the 2008-2012 „commitment period”. It has been widely hailed as the most important environmental deal ever negotiated, although some critics have questioned its effectiveness. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted as the first amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty that required its signatories to develop national programs to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) affect the energy balance of the global atmosphere in a way that is expected to lead to a general increase in global average temperature called global warming (see also greenhouse effect). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization, the long-term effects of global warming would include a general rise in global sea level, leading to flooding of low-lying coastal areas and the possible disappearance of some island States; melting glaciers, sea ice and Arctic permafrost; an increase in the number of extreme weather events such as floods and droughts and changes in their distribution; and an increased risk of extinction for 20 to 30 percent of all plant and animal species. The Kyoto Protocol committed most signatories to Annex I to the UNFCCC (composed of members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and several countries with „economies in transition”) to binding emission reduction targets that varied according to each country`s unique circumstances. The other signatories to the UNFCCC and the Protocol, which consisted mainly of developing countries, were not required to limit their emissions. .